Tenured and Tenure-Track Faculty
Helen Norton

Professor of Law

University of Colorado Law School
Wolf Law Building
401 UCB
Boulder, CO  80309-0401
Office: 412
Phone: (303) 492-5751
E-mail: helen.norton@colorado.edu

Curriculum Vitae:  View (PDF format)

Educational Background:
J.D.   University of California at Berkeley   1989  
B.A.   Stanford University   1986   with Distinction
Helen Norton joined the Colorado Law faculty in 2007, after earlier serving as a visiting professor at the University of Maryland School of Law and as the E. George Rudolph Distinguished Visiting Chair at the University of Wyoming College of Law. Her scholarly and teaching interests include constitutional law, civil rights, and employment discrimination law. and she has been honored with the Excellence in Teaching Award on multiple occasions. She served as leader of President-elect Obama's transition team charged with reviewing the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 2008, and is frequently invited to testify before Congress and federal agencies on civil rights law and policy issues.

Before entering academia, Professor Norton served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights at the U.S. Department of Justice, where she managed the Civil Rights Division's Employment Litigation, Educational Opportunities, and Coordination and Review Sections, and as Director of Legal and Public Policy at the National Partnership for Women & Families, where she practiced appellate litigation and engaged in administrative and legislative advocacy on a range of employment and civil rights matters. She holds a J.D. from Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California at Berkeley, where she served as Associate Editor of the California Law Review, and a B.A. from Stanford University, where she graduated with distinction.


Siri-ously? (with Toni M. Massaro), 100 Nw. U. L. Rev. (forthcoming 2016).
Government's Lies and the Constitution, 91 Ind. L. J. (forthcoming 2015).
Lies and the Constitution, 2012 Supreme Ct. Review 161 (2013).
The Equal Implications of Government's Hateful Speech, 54 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 159 (2012).
Campaign Speech Law with a Twist: When the Government is the Speaker, Not the Regulator, 61 Emory L.J. 209 (2011).
Norton (with Danielle Keats Citron), Intermediaries and Hate Speech: Fostering Digital Citizenship for the Information Age, 91 Boston U. L. Rev 1435 (2011).
The Supreme Court's Post-Racial Turn Towards a Zero-Sum Understanding of Equality, 52 William & Mary L. Rev. 197 (2010).
Government Speech 2.0., 87 DENV. U. L. REV. 899 (2010) (with Danielle Keats Citron).
Constraining Public Employee Speech: Government's Control of Its Workers' Speech to Protect Its Own Expression, 59 Duke L.J. 1 (2009).
The Measure of Government Speech: Identifying Expression's Source, 88 Boston University L. Rev. 587 (2008).
Re-Shaping Federal Jurisdiction: Congress' Latest Challenge to Judicial Review, 41 Wake Forest L. Rev. 1003 (2006).
Stepping Through Grutter's Open Doors: What the University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean for Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking, 78 Temple L. Rev. 543 (2005).
Not for Attribution: Government's Interest in Protecting the Integrity of Its Own Expression, 37 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1317 (2004).
You Can't Ask (or Say) That: The First Amendment Implications of Civil Rights Restrictions on Decisionmaker Speech, 11 William & Mary Bill of Rights. J. 727 (2003).

Other Publications

Setting the Tipping Point For Disclosing The Identity of Anonymous Online Speakers: Lessons from Other Disclosure Contexts, 49 WAKE FOREST L. REV. 565-81 (2014).
Secrets, Lies, and Disclosures, 27 Journal of Law and Politics 641 (2012).
Government Speech in Transition, 57 S.Dak. L. Rev. 421 (2012).
Imaginary Threats to Government's Expressive Interests, 61 Case Western Res. L. Rev. 1265 (2011).
Excluding Unemployed Workers from Job Opportunities: Why Disparate Impact Protections Still Matter, 2011 HASTINGS L.J. VOIR DIRE 1.
The Court's Post-Racial Turn, Legal Workshop, Feb. 28, 2011.
Shining a Light on Democracy's Dark Lagoon, 61 S. CAR. L. REV. 535 (2010).
Regulating Cyberharassment: Some Thoughts on Sexual Harassment 2.0, 87 DENV. U. L. REV. ONLINE 11 (2010).
Constraining Public Employee Speech, Legal Workshop, Oct. 19, 2009.
Government Workers and Government Speech,, 7 First Amendment L. Rev. 75 (2008).
The Antidiscrimination Law Implications of Excluding Reproductive Technologies from Employer-Sponsored Health Plans, 8 EMP. RTS. & EMP. POL'Y J. 523 (2004).
What Bush v. Gore Means for Elections in the 21st Century, 2 Wyoming L. Rev. 419 (2002).

Congressional Testimony

Federal Antidiscrimination Law Implications of Excluding Currently Unemployed Workers from Consideration for Job Opportunities, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2011).
The Protecting Older Workers Against Discrimination Act: Hearing on H.R. 3721 Before the Subcomm. on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 111th Cong. (2010).
The Protecting Older Workers Against Discrimination Act: Hearing on S. 1756 Before the S. Comm. on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, 111th Cong. (2010).
Employment Non-Discrimination Act: Ensuring Opportunity for All Americans: Hearing Before the S. Comm. On Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, 111th Cong. (2009).
Protecting American Employees from Workplace Discrimination: Hearing on H.R. 1431 Before H. Subcomm. on Health, Employment, Labor and Pensions of the H. Comm. on Education and Labor, 110th Cong. (2008).
The Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2007: Hearing on H.R. 2015 Before H. Subcomm. on Health, Employment, Labor, and Pensions of the H. Comm. on Education and Labor, 110th Cong. (2007).
Civil Rights Division Oversight: Hearing Before S. Comm. on the Judiciary, 110th Cong. (2007).

Selected Press, Media & Publicity

GOVERNMENT SPEECH AND POLITICAL COURAGE | Stanford Law Review | Friday, October 30, 2015
Massaro & Norton on Communicative Artificial Intelligence & the First Amendment | Legal Theory Blog | Monday, August 17, 2015
Expand harassment laws to protect victims of online abuse | Aljazeera America | Saturday, March 21, 2015
Tennessee Town Bans Negative Online Comments, Gets Trolled by Reddit | Bloomberg Businessweek.com | Wednesday, December 17, 2014
The Unemployed Need Not Apply | The New York Times | Saturday, February 19, 2011


Fall 2015 Problem Solving, Professional Judgment, and Decision Making LAWS 6813-001
Spring 2014 Constitutional Law LAWS 6005-801
Fall 2013 Antidiscrimination and First Amendment LAWS 8035-001
Spring 2013 Constitutional Law LAWS 6005-803
Fall 2012 Legislation and Regulation LAWS 5205-802
Fall 2012 Torts I LAWS 5425-803